The Development of Old Age and Related Issues

In the traditional Chinese cultures and other Asian cultures, the elderly were highly respected and cared for. The Igabo tribes of Eastern Nigeria value dependency in their elderly and involve them in child care and tribal affairs administration (Shelton, A. in Kalish R. Uni Michigan 1969).

In Eskimo culture, the grandmother was pushed into the flow of ice to die as soon as it became useless.

Western societies today generally resemble to some extent the Eskimo culture, only the "ice floes" have names such as "Sunset Vista" and the same. Young generations no longer attribute status to the elderly and their abandonment

is still in danger of becoming the social norm.

There is a tendency to remove the elderly from their homes and to put them on guard. To some extent, the government provides home care services to prevent or delay this, but the motivation probably has more to do with spending than humanity


In Canada and some parts of the United States old are used as adoptive grandparents in daycare agencies.


What is aging?

Aging: aging is a natural phenomenon Refers to changes that occur throughout life and lead to differences in structure and function between the young and the old generation

Geriatrics: a relatively new area of ​​medicine specializing in the health problems of the elderly. advanced age.

Social aging: refers to social habits and the roles of individuals with respect to their culture and society. As social aging increases, individuals usually experience a decrease in meaningful social interactions.

Biological Aging: refers to physical changes in body systems over the last decades of life. It can start long before the individual reaches chronological age 65.

Cognitive aging: refers to a decreasing ability to assimilate new information and to learn new behaviors and skills.


Eric Erikson (Youth and Life Cycle Children: 7: 43-49 MCH / April 1960) developed a theory of ages And stages of human development

involving 8 stages After birth, each of them involved a basic dichotomy representing the best case and the most disadvantaged results. Here are the dichotomies and their relevance of development:

Prenatal stage – conception at birth.

1. Childhood. Birth to 2 years – basic trust against basic mistrust. Hope.

2. First childhood, 3 to 4 years – autonomy against oneself / shame. Will.

3. The age of the game, 5 to 8 years – the initiative against guilt. Goal.

4. School age, 9 to 12 years – industry compared to inferiority. Skill.

5. Adolescence, 13-19 years old – identity / identity confusion. Fidelity.

6. Young adult – intimacy and isolation. Love.

7. Adulthood, generability and self-absorption. Care.

8. Mature: the integrity of the ego against despair. Wisdom.

This stage of adulthood, that is, phase 8, begins at the time of retirement and continues throughout his life. The achievement of the integrity of the ego is a sign of maturity while not having reached this stage is an indication of poor development in the earlier stages of the course. life.

Integrity of ego: This means accepting its integrality Life and reflect on it positively. According to Erikson, achievement

of integrity means to fully accept one's self and to hear oneself with death. Accepting responsibility for one's life and being able to revise

the past with satisfaction is essential. The inability to do so leads to despair and the individual will begin to fear death. If a favorable balance is reached during this stage, wisdom is developed.

Psychological aspects and personality:

Aging has psychological implications. Along with dying, our recognition of aging can be one of the deepest shocks we have ever received. Once we pass the invisible line of 65, our years are marked for the rest of the game of life. We are no longer "mature", we are rather classified as "old" or "elderly". The way we approach the changes we face and the constraints of altered status depends on our fundamental personality. Here are 3 types of basic personalities that have been identified. It may be simplified simplification, but this makes the personality point effective:

a. Autonomous – people who seem to have the resources for self-renewal. They can be devoted to a purpose or idea and commit to continue producing. This seems to protect them a bit even against physiological aging.

b. Adjusted people who are rigid and have no adaptability but are supported by their power, prestige or well – structured routine. But if their situation changes drastically, they become psychiatric victims.

c. L & # 39; anomic. These are people who do not have clear inner values ​​or a protective life vision. These individuals have been described as having resigned prematurely and may deteriorate rapidly.

Summary of the constraints of old age.

a. Retirement and reduced income. Most people rely on work for their own value, identity and social interaction. Forced retirement can be demoralizing.

b. Fear of disability and death. The increased likelihood of falling prey to a disease from which there is no recovery is a continuous source of anxiety

. When you have a heart attack or a stroke, the stress becomes much more serious.

Some people face death with equanimity, often psychologically supported by a religion or a philosophy. Others can welcome death as an end to suffering or insoluble problems and little concerned about life or human existence. Still others are facing imminent death with a great stress suffering against which they do not have ego defenses.

c. Isolation and loneliness. The elderly face inevitable losses from their loved ones, friends and contemporaries. The loss of a spouse of which one has depended for company and moral support is especially painful. Children grow up, get married, and worry or move away. Lack of memory, visual and hearing impairment can all contribute to making social interaction difficult. And if

leads to an aggravation of outlook and rigidity of attitude, social interaction decreases again and the individual may not even use the avenues for the 39 Social activity that are still available.

d. Reduction of sexual function and physical attractiveness. Kinsey et al, in their sexual behavior in human humans,

(Phil., Saunders, 1948) found a gradual decline in sexual activity with advanced age and That reasonably rewarding patterns of sexual activity can continue in extreme old age. Aging must also adapt to the loss of sexual attractiveness in a society that places the emphasis on sexual attractiveness. The adjustment of self-image and self-concept required can be very difficult to achieve.

e. Forces tending to personal devaluation. Often the experience of the older generation has little relevance to the problems of young people and the elderly is deprived of participation in decision-making in professional and family circles. Many parents are considered undesirable burdens and their children may secretly wish that they will die so that they may be free of the burden and have some relief or financial benefit. The elderly can be pushed into the role of being an elderly person with all this implies in terms of personal devaluation.

The main categories of problems or needs: Catabolism (degradation of the protoplasm) exceeds anabolism (accumulation of protoplasm).

All systems in the body are affected and repair systems slow down. The aging process occurs at different rates in different individuals.

Physical appearance and other changes:

Loss of subcutaneous fat and less elastic skin results in a wrinkled appearance, sagging and loss of body smoothness Contours. The joints stiffen and become painful and the range of joint movements becomes restricted,

mobility has decreased.

Respiratory changes:

Increased fibrous tissue in the thoracic walls and lung pathways restricts the airways Movements and less oxygen are consumed. Seniors are more likely to have lower respiratory infections while young people have upper respiratory infections.

Nutrient Changes:

Tooth decay and tooth loss can affect the ease and enjoyment of consumption. Atrophy of taste buds means that foods are prone to be tasteless and this should be taken into account by caregivers. Digestive changes come from lack of exercise (stimulating the intestines) and decreased production of digestive juice. Constipation and indigestion are likely to follow accordingly. Financial problems can lead older people to eat an excess of cheap carbohydrates rather than more expensive foods in protein and vegetables, which exacerbates the problem, resulting in a reduction in vitamin intake and problems such as the # 39 anemia and increased susceptibility to infection.

Adaptation to Stress:

We are all faced with stress at all ages. Adapting to stress requires energy consumption. The three main phases of stress are:

1. Initial reaction of the alarm. 2. Resistance. 3. Exhaustion

and if stress continues to cause tumors or aging. The elderly have had a life of stress. Energy reserves are depleted and the elderly succumbs to stress earlier than the younger person. Stress is cumulative over a lifetime. The results of the research, including experiments with animals, suggest that each stress leaves us more vulnerable to the next and that although we might think that we have "rebounded" 100% in fact, each stress leaves it healed. In addition, stress is a psycho-biological significance

the kind of stress is irrelevant. Physical stress can leave more vulnerable to psychological stress and vice versa. Rest did not remain completely after a stressor. Care workers need to be aware of this and aware of the types of things that can produce stress for the elderly.


Sigmund Freud noted that after age 50, the treatment of neuroses by psychoanalysis was difficult because Opinions and reactions of the elderly were relatively fixed and difficult to move.

Overvalued Behavior: This behavior has been well learned and repeated so often that it has become automatic, such as typing or descending stairs. Overvalued behavior is difficult to change. If he has lived a long time, he is likely to have fixed opinions and behaviors or ritualized behavior patterns.

Compulsive behavior: Skills and attitudes that have been learned in order to find ways to overcome frustration and difficulty are very difficult to break. Tension reduction habits such as nail splitting, incessant buzzing, smoking or drinking alcohol are particularly difficult to change at any age and are particularly difficult for people practicing them Their life.

The psychology of excess knowledge and compulsive behavior have serious implications for the elderly who find that they must live in what for them is a new and foreign environment with New rules and power relations.

Acquisition Information:

The elderly have a continuous background of neural noise, which makes them more difficult to adjust and interpret the sensory input

complex. Speaking to an elderly person, turn off the TV, eliminate as many noises and distractions as possible, speak slowly

and relate to one message or idea at a time.

The memories of the distant past is stronger than the more recent memories. New memories are the first to fade and the last to come back.

The time models can also be mixed: old and new can mix.


Intelligence reaches a peak And can remain high with a small deterioration if there is no neurological damage. People who have exceptionally high intelligence to begin with seem to experience the least decline. Education and stimulation also seem to play a role in maintaining intelligence.

Intellectual disability. Two diseases of old age causing cognitive decline are Alzheimer's syndrome and Pick's syndrome. In Pick's syndrome, he is unable to concentrate and learn, and affective responses are also altered.

Degenerative diseases: gradual progressive physical degeneration of the cells of the nervous system. Genetics appears to be an important factor. Usually begins after the age of 40 (but can occur as early as 20 years).

ALZHEIMER DISEASE Degeneration of all areas of the cortex but especially of the frontal and temporal lobes. The affected cells actually die. The early symptoms resemble neurotic disorders: anxiety, depression, sleep difficulties without agitation.

Gradual degradation of all intellectual faculties (memory deficiency being the most well-known and obvious). The total mass of the brain decreases, the ventricles become larger. No established treatment

PICK DISEASE Rare degenerative disease. Similar to Alzheimer's disease in terms of onset, symptomatology and genetic etiology

. However, this affects the circumscribed areas of the brain, especially the frontal areas, resulting in a loss of normal effect.

PARKINSON'S DISEASE Neuropathology: loss of neurons in the basal ganglia

Symptoms: anomalies of movement: alternative rhythmic tremor of 39 Extremities, eyelids and tongue with stiff muscles and slow movement (akinesia).

It was thought once that Parkinson 's disease was not associated with intellectual deterioration, but it is now known that there is an association between overall intellectual disability and Parkinson' s disease where It occurs late in life.

Cells lost in Parkinson's disease are associated with neurochemical dopamine and motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease are associated with dopamine deficiency. Treatment involves the administration of dopamine L-dopa precursor which can alleviate symptoms, including intellectual disability. The research suggests that it could possibly bring preliminary emotional effects in patients who had

a psychiatric illness at an earlier stage in their lives.

DOMAIM IN EFFECT Old age, our old age The concept of self becomes its final revision. We make a final assessment of the value of our lives and our balance of successes and failures.

How a person adapts to old age can be predicted by how the person has adapted to the previous important changes. If the person has suffered an emotional crisis whenever a major change was needed, adjusting to the requirements of old age might also be difficult. Factors such as economic security, geographic location and physical health are important to the process of adaptation.

Need for an accomplishment: For all of us, according to Maslow's theory Hierarchy needs we are not free To pursue higher needs of self- Self-actualization, unless the basic needs are secured. When it is considered that many, perhaps most, the elderly are living in poverty and are constantly affected by basic survival needs, they are probably not satisfied with the needs of prestige, success and To beauty.

The Hierarchy of Maslow


The following items are subject to prior sale without the authorization of the copyright holder.

Estime: Realization, prestige, success Respect

Realization of self: expressing one's interests and talents to the maximum.

Note: Seniors who have assured their basic needs may be motivated to work on tasks at the highest levels of the hierarchy – Activities related to aesthetics, creativity and Altruism, in compensation for the loss of sexual attractiveness and athletics. Elderly workers who have set out to get older people to concentrate on social activities can not frustrate and irritate them if their basic survival problems are not secured to their satisfaction. DEFENSE

Social aging according to Cumming, E. and Henry, W. (Growing old: the disengaging process of aging, NY, Basic 1961) Well-defined model:

1. Change of role. Change in occupancy and productivity. Maybe change

into working position.

2. Loss of role, eg. Retirement or death of a husband.

3. Reduction of social interaction. With the loss of role, social interactions are decreased, eccentric adjustment can further reduce social interaction, damage

to the idea of ​​self, Depression

4. Awareness of the scarcity of time remaining. This results in an additional reduction in activity

in the interest of saving time.

Havighurst, R. et al. (In B. Neugarten (ed.) Middle Ages and Aging, U. of Chicago, 1968) and others have suggested that disengagement is not an inevitable process. They believe that the needs of the elderly are essentially the same as in middle age and the activities of middle age should be prolonged as long as possible. Havighurst points out that the decrease in social interaction of the elderly is generally largely the result

of the society that withdraws from the individual as much as the reverse. To combat this, he believes that the individual must vigorously resist the limits of his social world.

DEATH Fear of the dead among tribal societies is well established. The people who had served the dead were taboos and required to observe various rituals, including isolation for varying periods of time. In some South American companies in Australia, it is taboo for some people to pronounce the names of the dead. Widows and widowers should observe rituals respectful of the dead.

Widows in the highlands of New Guinea around Goroka cut one of their fingers. The dead continue their existence as spirits and disturb them can lead to disastrous consequences.

Wahl, C in "The fear of death", 1959 noted that fear of death occurs as early as the third year of life. When a child loses a pet or a grandparent, the fears reside in the unvoiced questions: did I cause it? Will you soon be (parent)? Will this happen? The child in such situations must reassure that the departure is not a censorship, and that the parent is not likely to leave soon. Love, grief, guilt, anger are a mixture of conflicting emotions experienced.


Our culture grants great value to youth, beauty, high The status professions, social class and Activities and planned future accomplishments. Aging and death are refused and avoided in this system. The death of each person reminds us of our own mortality.

The death of the elderly is less troubling for the members of the western society because the elderly are not particularly appreciated. Surveys have established that nurses, for example, place more importance on safeguarding a younger life than an old life. In Western society, there is a pattern to avoid facing the aged and dying patient.

Steps of the death. Elisabeth Kubler Ross has specialized in working with dying patients and in her "On Death and Death", NY, Macmillan, 1969, summarized 5 stages of death.

1. Denial and isolation. "Not me".

2. Anger. "I lived a good life so why me?"

3. Negotiations. Secret affairs are struck by God. "If I can live up to … I promise …"

4. Depression. (In general, the biggest psychological problem of the elderly is depression). Depression results from actual and threatened loss.

5. Acceptance of the inevitable.

The typology of Kubler Ross as described above should, I believe to be taken with a grain of salt and not slavishly accepted. The American journalist David Rieff, who was celebrated in June 2008, invited the Sydney writer festival in connection with his book "Swimming in a Dead Sea: A Memoir of His Son" (Melbourne University Press) Expressly refused the validity of the typology of Kubler Ross In his interview of Late Night Live (Australian ABC radio) with Philip Adams on June 9 – 08. He said something that his mother had considered imminent as a murder. My own experience with agonizing people suggests that the human ego is extraordinarily resilient. I remember visiting a colleague dying at the hospital a few days before his death. He said, "I'm dying, I do not like it, but there's nothing I can do about it," and then I reflected on how academics do it, 39, an Adelaide University had told him that they were submitting his name to the Order of Australia (the new replacement "Knighthood" in Australia). By entering and leaving lucid thought with a tube of oxygen in his nostrils, he was nevertheless very interested in the "worldly glories". This observation appeared to be consistent with Rieff 's negative assessment of Kubler Ross' theories.


Older people share the same needs with young people: However, seniors often have fewer or weaker resources to meet these needs. Their need for social interaction can be ignored by family workers and caregivers.

The family should take the time to visit its aged members and invite them into their homes. The elderly love to visit children and tell each other through games and stories.

Significant relationships can be developed through adoptive parent programs. Some seniors do not know their income and their rights to health. Family and friends should take the time to explain them. Some older people are too proud to access their rights and this problem should be addressed in a nice way where this happens.

It is preferable that the elderly are allowed as many choices as possible in terms of living conditions, social life and lifestyle.

Communities serving the elderly must provide the elderly with factors such as lower brakes and ramps.

Caregivers should examine their own attitude towards aging and death. Denial in the caregiver is detected by the elderly person and it can prevent the elderly from expressing negative feelings – fear, anger. If the person can express these feelings to someone, then this person is less likely to die with a sense of isolation and bitterness.


The following notes are My Interpretation of a Dr. Depak Chopra Lecture entitled "The New Physics of Healing" Presented at the 13th Scientific Conference of the American Holistic Medical Association. Dr. Depak Chopra is an Endocrinologist and former Chief of Staff of New England Hospital, Massachusetts. I deliberately omit the details of his explanations on the more abstract, ephemeral and controversial ideas.

Matériel original de 735 Walnut Street, Boulder, Colorado 83002,

Téléphone. +303 449 6229.

Dans la lecture, le Dr Chopra présente un modèle de l'univers et de tous les organismes en tant que structures de centres interactifs d'énergie électromagnétique liés les uns aux autres de telle sorte que tout ce qui touche une partie d'un Le système ou la structure a des ramifications dans toute la structure. Ce modèle devient un analogue non seulement pour ce qui se passe dans la structure ou l'organisme lui-même, mais entre l'organisme et à la fois son environnement physique et social. En d'autres termes, il existe une corrélation entre les conditions psychologiques

la santé et le processus de vieillissement. Le docteur Chopra dans sa conférence concilie la philosophie védique ancienne (hindoue) avec la psychologie moderne et la physique quantique.

Engagement précognitif prématuré: le Dr Chopra invoque des expériences qui ont montré que les mouches conservées pendant longtemps dans un pot ne Laissez rapidement le pot quand le dessus est enlevé. Au lieu de cela, ils acceptent le pot comme limite de leur univers. Il souligne également qu'en Inde, les éléphants pour bébés sont souvent tenus attachés à une petite brindille ou à un arbre à ventre. À l'âge adulte, lorsque l'éléphant est capable de tirer sur un arbre de taille moyenne, il peut encore être attaché avec succès à une brindille! Dans un autre exemple, il indique les expériences dans lesquelles les poissons sont élevés sur

2 côtés d'un aquarium contenant un diviseur entre les 2 côtés. Lorsque le diviseur est enlevé, les poissons tardent à apprendre qu'ils peuvent maintenant nager dans tout le réservoir, mais rester dans la section qu'ils acceptent comme univers. D'autres expériences ont démontré que les chatons soulevées dans un environnement de rayures et de structures verticales, lorsqu'elles sont relâchées à l'âge adulte, continuent à se heurter à n'importe quoi aligné horizontalement comme s'ils n'étaient pas capables de voir tout ce qui était horizontal. À l'inverse, les chatons élevés dans un environnement de rayures horizontales lorsqu'elles sont relâchées se heurtent à des structures verticales, apparemment incapables de les voir.

Le but principal des expériences ci-dessus est qu'elles démontrent un engagement précognitif prématuré. La leçon à tirer est que notre appareil sensoriel se développe à la suite d'une expérience initiale et de la façon dont on nous a enseigné à l'interpréter.

Quel est l'aspect réel du monde? Il n'existe pas. La façon dont le monde nous regarde est déterminée par les récepteurs sensoriels que nous avons et notre interprétation de ce regard est déterminée par nos engagements précognitifs prématurés. Le Dr Chopra fait remarquer que moins d'un milliardième des stimuli disponibles le rendent dans notre système nerveux. La plupart d'entre eux sont examinés, et ce qui nous arrive est ce que nous sommes

en attendant de trouver sur la base de nos engagements précognitifs.

Dr. Chopra traite également des maladies qui sont effectivement causées par des interventions médicales traditionnelles, mais ce matériel est trop éloigné de mon intention centrale. Le Dr Chopra discute en termes simples la physique de la matière, de l'énergie et du temps en établissant le contexte plus large de notre existence. Il fait remarquer que nos corps, y compris les corps des plantes, sont des miroirs des rythmes cosmiques et des changements d'exposition se rattachant même aux marées.

Dr. Chopra cite les expériences du Dr Herbert Spencer de l'Institut national de la santé des États-Unis. Il a injecté des souris avec Poly-IC, un immuno-stimulant tout en faisant tourner les souris à plusieurs reprises sentir le camphre. Après que l'effet du Poly-IC a disparu, il a encore exposé les souris à l'odeur du camphre. L'odeur du camphre a eu pour conséquence que le système immunitaire des souris se renforçait automatiquement

comme s'ils avaient été injectés avec le stimulant. Il a ensuite pris un autre lot de souris et les a injecté avec du cyclophosphamide qui tend à détruire le système immunitaire tout en les exposant à l'odeur du camphre. Plus tard, après avoir repris la normale, l'odeur du camphre était suffisante pour provoquer la destruction de leur système immunitaire. Le Dr Chopra souligne que si le camphre a augmenté ou

a détruit le système immunitaire des souris était entièrement déterminé par une interprétation de la signification de l'odeur du camphre. L'interprétation n'est pas seulement dans le cerveau, mais dans chaque cellule de l'organisme. Nous sommes liés à notre imagination et à nos expériences antérieures


Chopra cite une étude du Département de l'éducation et du bien-être de la santé du Massachusetts en facteurs de risque de maladie cardiaque – antécédents familiaux, cholestérol, etc. 2 facteurs de risque les plus importants ont été considérés comme des mesures psychologiques – évaluation du bonheur et satisfaction professionnelle. Ils ont trouvé que la plupart des personnes sont mortes d'une maladie cardiaque lundi!

Chopra dit que pour chaque sentiment il y a une molécule. Si vous ressentez une tranquillité, votre corps produira du valium naturel. Les changements chimiques dans le cerveau se reflètent par des changements dans d'autres cellules, y compris les cellules sanguines. Le cerveau produit des neuropeptides et les structures cérébrales sont accordées chimiquement à ces récepteurs neuropéptidiques. Les neuropéptides (neurotransmetteurs) sont les concommitants chimiques de la pensée. Chopra souligne que les globules blancs (une partie du système immunitaire) possèdent des récepteurs neuropéptidiques et font "écoute" sur notre pensée. À l'inverse, le système immunitaire produit ses propres neuropéptides qui peuvent influencer le système nerveux. Il poursuit en disant que les cellules dans toutes les parties du corps, y compris le cœur et les reins, par exemple, produisent également des neuropéptides et

sensibilité aux neuropeptides. Chopra nous assure que la plupart des neurologues seraient d'accord pour dire que le système nerveux et le système immunitaire sont des systèmes parallèles.

Autres études en physiologie: les niveaux d'interlukin-2 de sang des étudiants en médecine ont diminué à mesure que le temps d'examen était proche et leurs capacités de récepteurs interlukin Également abaissé. Chopra dit que si nous nous amusons au point d'exaltation, nos niveaux naturels d'interlukin-2 deviennent plus élevés. Interlukin-2 is a powerful and very expensive anti-cancer drug. The body is a printout of consciousness. If we could change the way we look at our bodies at a genuine, profound level then our bodies would actually change.

On the subject of "time" Chopra cites Sir Thomas Gall and Steven Hawkins, stating that our description of the universe as having a past, present, and future are constructed entirely out of our interpretation of change. But in

reality linear time doesn't exist.

Chopra explains the work of Alexander Leaf a former Harvard Professor of Preventative Medicine who toured the world investigating societies where people  lived beyond 100 years (these included parts of Afghanistan, Soviet Georgia, Southern Andes). He looked at possible factors including climate, genetics, and diet. Leaf concluded the most important factor was the collective perception of aging in these societies.

Amongst the Tama Humara of the Southern Andes there was a collective belief that the older you got the more physically able you got. They had a tradition of running and the older one became then generally the better at running one got. The best runner was aged 60. Lung capacity and other measures actually improved with age. People were healthy until well into their 100s and died in their sleep. Chopra remarks that things have changed since the introduction of Budweiser (beer) and TV.

[DISCUSSION: How might TV be a factor in changing the former ideal state of things?]

Chopra refers to Dr. Ellen Langor a former Harvard Psychology professor's work. Langor advertised for 100 volunteers aged over 70 years. She took them to a Monastery outside Boston to play "Let's Pretend". They were divided into 2 groups each of which resided in a different part of the building. One group, the control group spent several days talking about the 1950s. The other group, the experimental group had to live as if in the year 1959 and talk about it in the present tense. What appeared on their TV screens were the old newscasts and movies. They read old newspapers and magazines of the period. After 3 days everyone was photographed and the photographs judged by independent judges who knew nothing of the nature of the experiment. The experimental group seemed to

have gotten younger in appearance. Langor then arranged for them to be tested for 100 physiological parameters of aging which included of course blood pressure, near point vision and DHEA levels. After 10 days of living as if in 1959 all parameters had reversed by the equivalent of at least 20 years.

Chopra concludes from Langor's experiment: "We are the metabolic end product of our sensory experiences. How we interpret them depends on the collective mindset which influences individual biological entropy and aging."

Can one escape the current collective mindset and reap the benefits in longevity and health? Langor says, society won't let you escape. There are too many reminders of how most people think linear time is and how it expresses itself in entropy and aging – men are naughty at 40 and on social welfare at 55, women reach menopause at 40 etc. We get to see so many other people aging and dying that it sets the pattern that we follow.

Chopra concludes we are the metabolic product of our sensory experience and our interpretation gets structured in our biology itself. Real change comes from change in the collective consciousness – otherwise it cannot occur within the individual.


Chopra, D. The New Physics of Healing. 735 Walnut Street, Boulder, Colorado 83002,

Phone. +303 449 6229.

Coleman, J. C. Abnormal psychology and modern life. Scott Foresman & Co.

Lugo, J. and Hershey, L. Human development a multidisciplinary approach to the psychology of individual growth, NY, Macmillan.

Dennis. Psychology of human behaviour for nurses. Lond. W. B.Saunders.

Source by Victor Barnes

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *